Laparoscopy is a procedure that allows visual examination and surgical treatments of the pelvic and abdominal organs pathology. The procedure is performed with a laparoscope, which is a small lighted telescope.
INDICATIONS – When is it necessary
Evaluation and treatment of women who has difficulty in conceiving.
Evaluation and treatment of known or suspected endometriosis.
Removal of diseased fallopian tubes, ovaries, cysts or uterus
Undiagnosed pelvic pain
Voluntary sterilization (tubal ligation or occlusion for permanent family planning)
For diagnosis and treatment of a variety of other pelvic or abdominal disorders
WHAT IS IT? Delivery of a baby through an incision in the mother’s lower abdominal and uterine walls and is performed when a vaginal delivery is not possible or is unsafe. This procedure is also called a C-section or Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS).
REASONS FOR PROCEDURE
Danger to the mother or baby from one or more of many causes, including:
Baby’s head too large to pass through the birth canal.
Baby in the wrong orientation – head up (breech) or transverse.
Failure of cervix to dilate (failed induction of labour).
Abnormal placenta location obstructing the birth canal (placenta praevia).
Failure of normal labour progress.
Situation where urgent delivery is indicated such as fetal distress or severe illness in the mother (such as severe hypertension or sudden fits).
Infection such as HIV or acute herpes genitalis infection in the mother.
Special situations: pregnancy resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART), maternal request
Most women stay in the hospital for 24 to 48 hours after giving birth (or 3 to 4 nights after a caesarean section). This will depend on the condition of the mother and baby.
The physical changes that occur with pregnancy usually resolve by the end of 6 weeks, although some may resolve much earlier than this. It is important to know all these changes, as it will help you cope better and lessen your worries. Emotional sup¬port and much needed help from your spouse and family members is equally important to assist you in facing these changes and coping with the arrival of a new member into the family. You will also get lots of advice from friends and relatives who visit you – some may be conflicting and may be harmful. There are many ways of doing things with no particular hard and fast rules on what is best for you. It is best to avoid traditional or Chinese herbs during this period. In the end, it is all boils down to common sense and you have to decide what is best for you and your baby. Do some reading and ask your doctor or midwife about your recovery during the postnatal period
Ectopic pregnancy is one that develops outside the uterus. The egg (oocyte) and the sperm meet in the fallopian tube and fertilization occurs. The embryo is supposed to move back to the uterine cavity for implantation. However, in ectopic pregnancy this does not occur, and the embryo gets implanted elsewhere. The most common location is in one of the narrow tubes that connect each ovary to the uterus (fallopian tube). As the fertilized egg enlarges, the fallopian tube stretches and ruptures, causing life-threatening internal bleeding. Other locations include the ovary, cervix, space beside the uterus (broad ligament space) or in the abdominal cavity. About 1 in 100 pregnancies is an ectopic.
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS
The occurrence of ectopic pregnancy is usually associated with an abnormal function of the fallopian tubes. Hence, tubal pregnancy is the most common type. Hormonal imbalances or abnormal development of the fertilized egg might also play a role. Certain condition may predispose to a higher chance of ectopic pregnancy such as:
Previous abdominal or pelvic infection
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), involving the fallopian tubes
Pregnancy after tubal ligation
Assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization.
Adhesions (bands of scar tissue) from previous pelvic surgery.
Previous tubal pregnancy.
History of endometritis (infection of the inner uterine lining)
Malformed (abnormal) uterus or fallopian tubes
Pregnant with an intrauterine device (IUD) in place (failure of IUD)
It is an abnormal growth of cells in the muscle layer (myometrium) of the uterus. Uterine fibroids are common and usually benign (not cancerous). Fibroids range in size from very tiny to the size of an orange or larger.
Uterine fibroids are the most common pelvic growth in women. The actual incidence among all women is unknown but generally cited as 20 to 25 % in the general population and is highest between age 35 to 45 years old.
TYPES (based on location in the uterus)
Subserous which appear on the outside of the uterus.
Intramural, which is confined to the wall of the uterus.
Submucous which appears inside the uterus.
Pedunculated fibroids, which are attached to the uterine wall by stalks.
Broad ligament type which grows to the side of the uterus