Contraception – Male condom

The main purpose of contraception (or birth control) is to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. You should know and understand the different types of methods available to you, the risks and benefits of each, and any possible side effects, so that both you and your partner can able to make an informed choice. Contraception can be broadly divided into:

  1. Temporary or permanent methods – permanent birth control is accomplished through sterilization (tying or removal of the fallopian tubes) or hysterectomy (removal of womb / uterus). The rest of the methods are classified as temporary or reversible.
  2. Short term or long-term methods – short term methods are condoms and oral pills. Long term methods are injectables, intrauterine device and hormonal implants.

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First visit to the gynaecologist – what you should know

Health screening as a person ages is especially important. It should be your top priority even if you are healthy. In women, this will include a visit to the gynaecologist’s clinic and will help in identifying if the woman has increased risks for developing a disease or already has the disease or condition that was not previously known about. Early identification of risks factors can help in counselling and instituting remedial or preventive measures to reduce that risk. This may in fact help to prevent the disease from occurring. Likewise, early detection of disease and starting treatment as soon as possible will results in a better outcome and lower the risks of complications. For example, many women with ovarian cancer do not have symptoms until it is too late. However, prompt diagnosis at an early stage of ovarian cancer will give excellent outcome with surgery alone and may not even need chemotherapy at all.
Many women feel nervous or even afraid to see the gynaecologist, especially if it is their first visit. Seeing a gynaecologist is just like seeing any other doctor in other specialities such as your dentist or general practitioner. They are there to help you and you should take this as an opportunity to seek their help in taking care of your health.

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Bone mineral density testing (BMD)

This test is done to measure the density of bones and this is able to predict the risk of fractures. Bone density decreases in both men and women with age, but in women, the decrease is more rapid and more severe following menopause when the ovaries stop producing the oestrogen hormone. BMD testing can show whether there is significant bone loss, resulting in low bone mass. This is a major cause of osteoporosis and of bone fractures (partic­ularly the hip, spine or forearm) in men and women over the age of 40.

Osteoporosis is a reduction in the amount of bone mass resulting in the loss of bone strength. This will predispose it to fracture. Osteopenia refers to a decrease in bone mineral density and is less severe form compared to osteoporosis. Eventually, it is likely to lead to osteoporosis if no treatment is given.

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Vulvovaginal candidiasis (Vaginal yeast infection)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is an infection of the vagina caused by a yeast-like fungus (usually Candida albicans). It is one of the commonest causes of vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina). An estimated 75 percent of all women will develop a yeast infection during their lifetime. Vaginal candidiasis infections are very common in pregnancy due to the increased levels of circulating oestrogen in the bloodstream.

CAUSES

The fungus Candida lives in small numbers in a healthy vagina, rectum and mouth without causing problems. When the vagina’s hormone and pH balance is disturbed, the organisms multiply and cause infections.

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