Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is caused by an overgrowth of certain types of bacteria, which results in vaginal inflammation. With BV, there is a shift in the bacterial ecosystem, favouring the “not so good or healthy” type such as Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species and a corresponding reduction in the healthy types such as lactobacillus. There is also a disturbance of the vaginal pH. Bacterial vaginosis most often occurs during reproductive years. It is not regarded as a sexually transmitted infection, but sexual activity has been linked to the development of this infection.