Uterine Prolapse (pelvic organ prolapse)

This refers to the descend of the uterus into the lower half of the vagina and beyond. In its most severe form, the whole uterus may be outside the vagina. Besides the uterus, other pelvic organ may descend as well such as bladder (cystocoele), rectum (rectocoele) and the small intestines (enterocoele).

Symptoms and signs

  • A lump is seen or felt at the opening of the vagina. It may be seen protruding outside of the vagina.
  • Vague discomfort or pressure in the pelvic region.
  • Backache that worsens with lifting.
  • Urination problems such as frequent and painful urination, difficulty in urination. occasional stress incontinence (urine leakage when laughing, sneezing or coughing), inability to control urination (uncontrollable urine leakage).
  • Difficulty in defecation.
  • Pain during or difficulty with sexual intercourse.
  • Abnormal per vaginal bleeding, usually arising from the exposed vagina wall and cervix.

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Vasectomy – Male contraception

Article contributed by Dr Peter Ng and Dr Beatrice Chua Yoong Ni

The aim of a vasectomy is to prevent sperm from reaching the semen by disconnecting the sperm duct. The resulting ejaculate is therefore sperm-free, eliminating the risk of pregnancy. Sort of like a cheap shark fin soup without the shark fins (sperms).

Vasectomy is the contraception of choice for 6%–8% of married couples worldwide. Vasectomy is a minor procedure that provides effective and permanent contraception. In fact, it is far more effective than many other methods of contraception, including female sterilization.

Prior to a vasectomy, it is important and both husband and wife be present together to be counseled by a specialist on the implications of the procedure. It is important that the completeness of family is ascertained and that both husband and wife had discussed beforehand and agreed that it is the husband who should undergo a vasectomy to attain permanent contraception.

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Lower Urinary Tract Infection (Lower UTI, cystitis)

Infection of the lower urinary tract occurs when the inner lining of the bladder becomes infected and the urine is full of bacteria. In pregnancy, 5 – 10% of women have bacteria in their bladder and some will have no symptoms at all.

How common?

Up to 40 – 50% of women will have at least one attack in their lifetime and 25% will have recurrences.

Causes

  • Bacteria can reach the bladder from the genital and anal area, or through the bloodstream.
  • Injury to the urethra or the bladder.
  • Prolonged use of a urinary catheter to empty the bladder, such as during childbirth or surgery.

Risk factors

  • Sexual activity.
  • Infection in other parts of the genitourinary system.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Poor hygiene.
  • Menopause.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Underlying abnormalities of the urinary tract, such as tumours, calculi (stones), and strictures.
  • Incomplete bladder emptying.
  • During or after major surgery

Read moreLower Urinary Tract Infection (Lower UTI, cystitis)

How Pregnancy Affects the Feet

Article contributed by Ms Emily Mah

For every pregnancy journey, a mother or mother-to-be naturally experiences feelings of excitement and apprehension. In this 40-week period, a woman’s body goes through so many phases of change. Visible changes of increasing waistline and digits on the weighing scale are often coupled with swelling in the ankles and the presence of stretch marks. Internal observations will show pregnancy’s effects on metabolism, respiration, bone density, and the digestive system, to name a few.

As the body accommodates a nurturing and developing fetus, stark changes in the anatomy and physiology of a woman will occur. Throughout the course of these 9 months, such changes actually have an impact on every organ system in the body.

In this article, we will cover how pregnancy affects the feet. Swelling is a common occurrence during this phase. Also known as oedema, swelling can occur in different parts of the body though it largely occurs in the ankle region. Puffiness in the face or the hands is occasionally present. Dark spider veins, also known as varicose veins, often cause aesthetic concerns in women. Pregnancy is presumed to be a major contributing factor in its increased prevalence. Aside from its undesirable sight, this can also lead to cramps, heaviness, aching or numbness in the feet and calves.

Read moreHow Pregnancy Affects the Feet

Contraception – Male condom

The main purpose of contraception (or birth control) is to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. You should know and understand the different types of methods available to you, the risks and benefits of each, and any possible side effects, so that both you and your partner can able to make an informed choice. Contraception can be broadly divided into:

  1. Temporary or permanent methods – permanent birth control is accomplished through sterilization (tying or removal of the fallopian tubes) or hysterectomy (removal of womb / uterus). The rest of the methods are classified as temporary or reversible.
  2. Short term or long-term methods – short term methods are condoms and oral pills. Long term methods are injectables, intrauterine device and hormonal implants.

Read moreContraception – Male condom

Colposcopy

This is a microscopic examination of the cervix, vagina, or vulva. It is used to diagnose potential abnormalities of these areas, which sometimes cannot be seen with the naked eyes. The colposcope can magnify the tissue by up to 30 times, thus making it clearer and much more accurate in terms of surface evaluation. Therefore, the biopsy of the abnormal areas performed with a colposcopic examination is more accurate than those done without the use of a colposcope.

Why do I need a colposcopy evaluation?

  • It is usually recommended if you have an abnormal Pap smear (Thin Prep) test or when pre-cancerous lesion is suspected in the vagina or labia area.

Read moreColposcopy

First visit to the gynaecologist – what you should know

Health screening as a person ages is especially important. It should be your top priority even if you are healthy. In women, this will include a visit to the gynaecologist’s clinic and will help in identifying if the woman has increased risks for developing a disease or already has the disease or condition that was not previously known about. Early identification of risks factors can help in counselling and instituting remedial or preventive measures to reduce that risk. This may in fact help to prevent the disease from occurring. Likewise, early detection of disease and starting treatment as soon as possible will results in a better outcome and lower the risks of complications. For example, many women with ovarian cancer do not have symptoms until it is too late. However, prompt diagnosis at an early stage of ovarian cancer will give excellent outcome with surgery alone and may not even need chemotherapy at all.
Many women feel nervous or even afraid to see the gynaecologist, especially if it is their first visit. Seeing a gynaecologist is just like seeing any other doctor in other specialities such as your dentist or general practitioner. They are there to help you and you should take this as an opportunity to seek their help in taking care of your health.

Read moreFirst visit to the gynaecologist – what you should know

Contraception – Hormonal implant (Implanon)

The main purpose of contraception (or birth control) is to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. You should know and understand the different types of methods available to you, the risks and benefits of each, and any possible side effects so that both you and your partner can able to make an informed choice. Contraception can be broadly divided into:

  1. Temporary or permanent methods – permanent birth control is accomplished through sterilization (tying or removal of the fallopian tubes) or hysterectomy (removal of womb/uterus). The rest of the methods are classified as temporary or reversible.
  2. Short term or long-term methods – short term methods are condoms and oral pills. Long term methods are injectables, intrauterine device and hormonal implants.

Hormone implant currently available is Implanon NXT®. It consists of a single plastic rod measuring 4 cm and contain a progestogen hormone called etonogestrel. Implanon is inserted surgically, just under the skin of the upper arm. The implant will release a minute amount of this hormone every day for 3 years. It works by preventing the monthly ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary) during your menstrual cycle. It also thickens the vaginal mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg (fertilization). Continuous effect of the hormone will thin out the lining of the uterus (womb) to prevent attachment of a fertilized egg. Implanon does not contain any oestrogen.

Read moreContraception – Hormonal implant (Implanon)